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Dieting and Weight Management Health & Nutrition
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French women are
Weight loss: How
fast is too fast?
Increased metabolism after exercise - does afterburn really exist?
Whoops! I didn't mean to say you're fat
Bigger women need more pre-pregnancy folate
and exams don't mix
How does the Atkins Diet work?
Eat breakfast. lose weight
more likely to snack under stress
Does my mum look big?
authorities crack down on "low fat" claims
Low-carbohydrate diets are becoming increasingly popular for weight loss.
However scientific evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these diets
is not yet conclusive. A meta-analysis of findings from five individual
trials has concluded that after 6 months, individuals following
low-carbohydrate diets do lose more weight than individuals following
low-fat diets however this difference is no longer obvious after 12 months.
differences were observed in blood pressure between the dieting groups,
however those following the low-carb diet generally had higher levels of
both LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and total cholesterol levels than those
following a low-fat diet.
Reference: Nordmann AJ, 2006, Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs
Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A
Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials,
2006 Feb 13;166(3):285-93.
my mum look big?
many years pregnant women were encouraged to 'eat for two' during pregnancy
however two recent US studies reveal that children born to mothers who put
on a lot of weight during pregnancy are particularly prone to becoming
overweight themselves, even by the age of 3. And even women who follow
official advice on how much weight they should gain during pregnancy may be
priming their children for obesity.
Childhood obesity has tripled both in Australia and the US since 1980 with
research suggesting that children are being condemned to a life of obesity
while still in the womb. Researchers from the US Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention reviewed national health records, finding a
correlation between excessive pregnancy weight gain and obesity among
children aged 2 to 4.
However researchers from Harvard Medical School found that even women who
follow official advice on how much weight they should gain throughout their
pregnancy may be priming their children for obesity. These findings may
however be slightly countered by differences in official recommendations for
pregnancy weight gain.
Official US guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy suggest that a
“normal” woman should gain a total of 11.5 and 16 kilograms in total whereas
the World Health Organization suggests 10-12.5 kilograms (Australian
recommendations suggest a similar range of 10-13kg).
Institute of Medicine, the prime public health body in the US, plans to
convene a workshop in 2006 to consider this new data on the consequences of
weight gain during pregnancy and childhood obesity. In the meantime
researchers warn pregnant women against adopting a restrictive diet in the
hope of slimmer children as women who fail to gain sufficient weight during
pregnancy are at greater risk of problems, including premature births.
current recommendation for additional food intake during pregnancy is
for an extra 850-1100kJ per day during the second and third trimesters
(which roughly equates to a glass of milk or a sandwich).
Aldhous P, New Scientist magazine, Issue 2528 (01 December 2005), p.14.
authorities crack down on
"low fat" claims
Proposed changes to Australian food labels will see much stricter regulation
of the terms "diet", "reduced", "low fat" and "low sugar" with any such
claims requiring disclosure of the amount of energy contained in each
serving as a percentage of the recommended daily intake. Foods will no
longer be able to described as "low fat" if they contain more than three
grams (3%) of fat per 100 grams. "Diet" foods will only be applied to food
with 40 per cent less energy than the regular product, and containing 170
kilojoules or less per 100 grams.
While the proposed changes may make selecting foods on the basis of "low
fat" or "diet" simpler, prepare yourselves for new, previously unseen health
claims about particular food's role in fighting or preventing serious
disease. Claims such as “foods rich in calcium may help to prevent
osteoporosis” may be allowed to be included on food labels provided the
claims are able to be scientifically substantiated.
Must have 40% less
energy. Must be 170kJ less per 100g
At least 25% less
3g per 100g or < 1.5g per 100ml
Low saturated fat
1.5g per 100g or
< 0.75g per 100ml
5g per 100g or <
2.5 g per 100ml
Source of protein
Must specify which
characteristic (eg. light in taste, light in colour)
Must consist of at
least 90% by weight
% daily intake of
energy has to be declared
Source: Needham K, Low fat? At last it’ not such a slim claim, Sydney
Morning Herald, 29 November 2005.
there’s proof that dieting is bad for your health – it may even kill you.
Research conducted by the Institute of Preventative Medicine at Copenhagen
University Hospital followed the dieting behaviours of 2597 overweight and
obese people concluding that those who dieted and lost weight were almost
twice as likely to die young as those who didn’t. It seems that dieting
weakens organs, tissues and the immune system. The solution? Healthy
eating, exercise and moderation. Just like what we keep saying…..
Cold swims make
Taking a swim
in cold water may be invigorating, but according to new US research it may
also increase your appetite enough to contribute to weight gain.
Researchers from the University of Florida compared the energy intake of 11
male volunteers after swimming in warm, then cold water and found that
energy intake was 44% higher after exercising in cold water.
The research authors also suggest that the findings may help to explain why
some people find it difficult to lose weight by swimming.
possible that individuals who exercise in cooler water may have an
exaggerated energy intake following exercise, which may be a reason why they
don't lose as much weight," says Assistant Professor Lesley White. "So
it may not be the exercise itself that causes the problem because you can
match the exercise energy expenditure; rather it's the increased eating
after the exercise is over."
research published in the
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
reported that student volunteers exercised on a stationary bicycle submerged
in water for 45 minutes, in either cold water at 20°C or warm water at 33°C.
The students were then put into a room with food.
"We found that during the recovery period, when the subjects had access to
an assortment of foods, that significantly more calories were eaten after
exercise in cold water compared to exercise in warm water or at rest," White
Source: ABC Science Online
women are getting chubbier
Guiliano's world bestseller French Women Don't Get Fat recommends
that all we need to do is stay slim and fabulous is to learn to eat like
French women. French women, Guiliano says, drink lots of water and
champagne (Guiliano is the chief executive of Veuve Cliquot's US
subsidiary), do lots of walking, prepare balanced meals from fresh seasonal
produce and shun any form of low-fat or low-carb diet.
Clark's article published in this Saturday's Sydney Morning Herald argues
that although French women are, on average, leaner than their Australian or
Americans counterparts, the average French woman is unhappy with her body
weight, struggles to squeeze into a
size-12 and typically wishes she could shed 5 kilos. The number of
French considered to be overweight or obese is also steadily increasing
(about 46 per cent of French men and 32 per cent of women) and childhood
obesity rates in France are growing so rapidly (currently almost 20 per
cent) that French health professionals worry that France could find
themselves in the same league as the US by 2020.
nation the French have long enjoyed a phenomenon described as the French
paradox - comparatively low rates of heart disease despite their saturated
fat-rich diets. Yet it appears that more and more French are turning their
backs on a key ingredient of the paradox - antioxidant-rich red wine.
Red-wine consumption is down 23 per cent across France and a National Health
and Nutrition Program Survey reports that 60 per cent of French do not
regularly consume alcohol.
Overweight Australians may also take some comfort in knowing that many
French women also owe much of their weight maintenance to tobacco. One
third of all French women smoke and the number of young people taking up
smoking continues to grow - more than half of those aged 15 to 25 have an
As Michelle Lacoste-Dupont, a Parisian
psychiatrist who works with eating disorders, comments "Even if we are
nowhere near as overweight as the Americans, more French children are obese,
more French mean and women are dieting , and more are falling for ad diets
that don't work".
news is not all bad for French Women Don't Get Fat converts.
Guiliano's dietary ideal illustrates many valuable
nutrition points. A balanced diet relying primarily on home-prepared
seasonal fresh produce will always get a tick from nutritionists, but the
real value of Guiliano's book lies in the concept of actually
a wide variety food, and any diet that
prescribes a daily ration of chocolate cant be all that bad.
Source: Clark J, It's true,
French women do get fat, Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday April 2.
loss: how fast is too fast?
Has weight loss become a spectator
sport? On last we could think of at least five series currently on TV dedicated to
radical makeovers invariably including dramatic weight loss. It seems
whenever we tune in we can follow staggering drops in weight all wrapped up
into dizzying one hour packages. And while we all understand that it
is the magic of TV that is able to deliver these turbo-charged makeovers
(combined with a range of surgery, drastic diets, endless sessions with
pricey personal trainers, not to mention the new designer wardrobe and
hairdo) the underlying message is the same - you can have this now!
So here's the reality of it.
More than 90% of all weight loss diets fail in the long term simply because
they aim for rapid weight loss strategies that are unable to sustained in
the long term. For the majority of the population
weight loss should not exceed an average of 0.5-1kg
each week. Anything more than this and you are generally losing
vital muscle tissue and water. Remember also that for truly effective
weight loss and body shaping you should also be increasing your physical
activity (and therefore increasing your muscle mass).
Increased metabolism after exercise - does afterburn really exist?
Anyone who has embarked on a weight loss
or get-fit program has undoubtedly heard about the benefits of 'afterburn'
- the period of time directly after intense exercise where the body continues
to burn calories at a higher than normal rate. Afterburn, or excess
post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), is caused during intense exercise.
While exercising at higher intensities your muscles require more oxygen than
is normally available so the body redirects oxygen from other areas. When you
finish exercising areas of the body that are low in oxygen work to
recover oxygen that they forfeited to the muscles. The body also needs to
cool down and restore hormone balance, all of which requires oxygen.
However the impact of this 'afterburn',
or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), is often exaggerated.
Depending on the intensity of the workout EPOC can last from two to 15 hours
and amounts to roughly 10 to 15 calories for every 100 calories burned during
the actual exercise. Dr Cedric Byant, chief exercise physiologist for the
American Council on Exercise describes it this way "If you go to the gym and
burn 300 calories, your afterburn will be about 45 calories. That's one bite
of a Snickers bar... People should not look at this as a licence to eat and
drink all day thinking that their earlier workout is melting calories away".
The important thing to remember is that the major contribution to weight loss
is via the energy expended during the actual exercise - not the afterburn.
Source: Briley J, 2005, Afterburn
dismissed, The Washington Post, reprinted in The Sydney Morning
Herald; Health & Science Supplement, January 13 2005,
I didn't mean to say you're fat
While all of us can censor our thoughts, some of us are
better at it than others, and it's easy to slip up. Stress, tiredness and
being distracted increase the likeliness of "putting your foot in it",
telling people what you really think of them, or making other social
blunders. Researchers from the University of New South Wales investigated
what happens when things go wrong. "The dinner party guest who puts his
foot in his mouth could lack a crucial mental ability that stops the rest of
us from blurting out our true feelings," says Associate Professor Bill von
The UNSW researchers tested 71 people to monitor socially accepted
behaviour under a range of tests and pressures. They first tested the
participants' ability to hold their tongues and suppress irrelevant or
inappropriate thoughts by sitting the Stroop test. The Stroop test requires
participants to say the colour of the word, but not read the word itself.
So, red should be read as "blue" not "red".
The test monitors how effectively people can block out the irrelevance of
the actual word and a widely used to judge inhibitory ability.
Participants were then divided into groups and asked to
eat a chicken's foot under different levels of social pressure. The
"high-pressure" group were served a chicken foot by a Chinese woman.
The woman also described as the national dish of China and her personal
favourite. The expectation being that most people attempted to be polite
about the meal, despite personal misgiving. The "low-pressure" group were
served a chicken foot by a woman who wasn't Chinese and said only that it
was Chinese food.
Those who performed poorly on the earlier inhibitory Stroop test also
performed poorly in this situation, acting in a way thought socially
inappropriate, like pulling a face or saying "that's disgusting".
The experiment also manipulated attention by including distractions. The
people in the study had to remember an eight-digit number while they were
served the chicken foot. Their attention was now divided between remembering
the number and conforming to social etiquette.
"Even people with good inhibitory ability were likely to behave
inappropriately when distracted. This suggests that our ability to suppress
our true feelings is disrupted under demanding conditions," von Hippel
says. "It's well established that older people, very young people, and some
brain-damaged people have less inhibitory control over thought and action.
However this new research suggests that important variations occur in the
general population in this inhibitory ability; some of us are naturally
better at holding our tongue than others.
"Many people may be unable to inhibit the tendency to blurt things out even
when they know the rules of social behaviour and want to behave
appropriately...It's likely that people who can inhibit their true feelings
in a challenging social situation are more likely to succeed in jobs
requiring a high degree of social etiquette, such as international
"But even experienced career diplomats may find it increasingly difficult to
act appropriately if they are distracted or fatigued, or as they grow
older." The findings are soon to be published in Psychological Science.
Reference, Marshall J, 2005, 'Whoops, I
didn't mean to say you're fat', ABS Science Online, 24th January 2005,
Bigger women need more pre-pregnancy folate
Women with a body mass index
greater (BMI) than 30 may need additional folate over and above current
recommendation levels for women of childbearing age. Higher pre-pregnancy
body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of neural tube
defects (NTDs) a condition linked with low maternal folate levels. Using
data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, it was
estimated that women with a BMI greater than 30 would need to take an
additional 350 microg/day of folate to achieve the same serum folate level
as women with a BMI less than 20. To calculate BMI use the following
Body Mass Index =
weight (kg) / (height (m) x height (m)
Example 60kg, 154
cm woman = 60/(1.54 x 1.54) = 25.3 BMI
Source: Mojtabai R, 2004, Body mass index and serum folate in
childbearing age women, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 19, no.11,
and the new diet revolution
Health professionals have promoted a low fat, high
carbohydrate diet for more than 20 years however the prevalence of
overweight and obesity in Australia has continued to increase.
However a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet does not guarantee health, especially if the
diet contains high
levels of simple sugars, low levels of complex carbohydrates and are
In contrast to the low
fat, high carbohydrate diet, a popular approach to weight loss is the
high-protein, low-carbohydrate Atkins diet. The Atkins regimen promises quick weight
loss without hunger, allows a wide range of foods and has simple
“rules”. To read
this editorial go to: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/181_10_151104/ril10624_fm.html
dieters more likely to snack under stress
who report regularly dieting or restricting food intake are more likely to snack
following a stressful incident or when required to complete intellectually
challenging tasks than women who do not regularly diet. The British
research to be published in this month's Journal of Eating Behaviour also
concluded that regular dieters eat significantly more food under post-stress
conditions than their non-dieting counterparts.
Lattimore P, Maxwell L, 2004, 'Cognitive load, stress, and disinhibited eating',
Eat Behav, Nov; 5(4):315-24.
Dieting and exams don't mix
Australian research now shows that dieters are more forgetful when it comes to
carrying out some complex cognitive tasks as it seems that some of their
memory space is taken up thoughts of food, weight and body image. Researchers
from Adelaide's Flinders University divided 92 female university students into three groups: those
currently on a diet, those who had dieted in the past and those who had never
dieted. The students then performed a series of cognitive tasks, such as
tests recalling sequences of short and long words. The researchers found that
those currently dieting struggled with complex verbal tasks. "You would
think that dieting doesn't have much to do with verbal type things. But our
study showed that when people were doing a task and then had to say something
like numbers at the same time it affected their performance,".
Interestingly, only those who were currently dieting were affected; those who
had once dieted performed on par with those who had never dieted. The
researchers said this indicated it was the dieting behaviour itself that
contributed to the poorer performance. The researchers reported that the study findings were
consistent with the idea that it was dieters' preoccupying thoughts that led to
poorer memory performance. Source: http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/health/HealthRepublish_1105852.htm
the Atkins diet work?
Atkins diet prescribes unlimited intake of fat and protein rich foods while
virtually eliminating all carbohydrate foods. Even the amount of fruit is
The world's most beautiful and
famous people have taken Dr Atkins' advice and the book Atkins new diet
revolution knocked Harry Potter off the best seller's list in the UK but how
can a diet that encourages unrestricted intake of fat and protein rich foods
without any regard for caloric intake actually work?
The truth is that until
recently no one had yet systematically looked at how the Atkins diet actually
Not even Dr Atkins knew. During his lifetime Dr Atkins put
forward a number of untested but possible theories to how you could eat more but
still lose weight. He had speculated that turning fats and proteins into
energy is a much more complicated chemical process than that of creating energy
from carbohydrates and therefore the body would burn more energy breaking down a
high protein, high fat diet. Dr Atkins also theorised that by eliminating
carbohydrates your body would use up its glucose stores and then turn to fat for
fuel. As your body burns fats it creates as a by-product molecules called
ketones. Ketones are actually quite toxic so the body eliminates them in
the urine and because ketones are in fact calories you could literally flush
them down the toilet.
Researchers at Kansas
University put Dr Atkins' theories to the test by comparing the heat, energy,
ketone output of two identical twins. For two weeks one of the twins was
put on the high fat, high protein Atkins diet. The other was put on a
conventional low-fat diet. They were then locked in to a sealed chamber
for a whole day and night where their levels of oxygen intake were measured in
order to calculate how quickly their bodies were burning fuel. The twins'
urine was also tested for ketone output. Results from oxygen measurements
found that the twin on the Atkins diet did lose a few more calories (22), but
barely enough to warrant the theory that you lose more calories when breaking
down the high fat high protein Atkins diet. The results of urine tests
were even more damning with the twin on Atkins losing less than a single calorie
more than his twin on low-fat. So while these tests essentially disproved
Dr Atkins' theories they did little to answer how in fact the diet did in
fact work. Instead the answer may have come via a popular UK television
The TV series Diet Trials
tracked the progress of four groups of dieters following four different diets.
Three of the groups followed different variants of conventional low-fat
low-calorie diets while the fourth group followed the Atkins diet. All
dieters were required to keep a detailed diary of what they ate. All four
diets performed similarly when it came to weight loss however it wasn't until
researchers started to analyse the diet diaries from the Atkins dieters that
something interesting emerged.
The diaries revealed that
although those on the Atkins diet could eat as much as they liked they were
actually eating as few calories as the low calorie dieters. So for all of
the talk of limitless calories the Atkins dieters were eating less than they
normally would (and therefore losing weight). At last it seems the mystery
of the Atkins diet works may have been solved and it appears to have nothing to
do with ketosis, burning more calories or limitless fat intake. Instead it
seems that the Atkins diet works because protein makes you feel full and
therefore curbs your appetite.
So what does this mean for
Atkins dieters and the rest of us? Essentially it means that by increasing
our protein intake we can curb our appetite (ever noticed
for example how if you eat
a salad sandwich it is not often that you would feel full, however if
eating a similar sandwich with a protein source such as chicken, egg, cheese or
tuna you feel full much earlier). Protein makes you feel full
and actually tells your body to stop eating.
These findings also suggest
that by increasing protein in the diet but ignoring Dr Atkins most dangerous
recommendations (that is to reduce and eliminate fruits and vegetables and to
eat more saturated fats) and still enjoy the appetite control and weight loss
benefits without jeopardising your health. Source:
breakfast, lose weight - but don't order the bacon and eggs just yet.
Breakfast eaters tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) than individuals who
skip breakfast and obese individuals are more likely to skip breakfast.
The number of overweight and obese American adults almost doubled between 1960
and 1994 from 12.8% to 22.5% while between 1965 and 1991, the proportion
of American adults skipping breakfast increased from 14% to 25%. It has
also been found that moderately obese women lose more weight when they consume
70% of their daily energy intake before noon instead of in the afternoon or
evening. However American researchers investigating the relationship
between breakfast type and BMI found that individuals reporting meat and/or egg
as a common breakfast also had high BMIs. The best breakfasts for weight
management, according to the study was cereal or toast.
Cho S et al. The effect of breakfast on total daily energy intake and body
mass index: results from the Third National Nutrition Examination Survey.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2003; 22(4):296-302:
Reproduced in Blackmores Online September 10, 2003).
Low-fat, low-cal, low-carb. Atkins, South Beach, The Zone. Trendy diets may
be distracting attention from something more insidiously piling on kilos:
beverages. One of every five calories in the American diet is liquid. The
nation's single biggest "food" is soda (soft drink). Now two groups of US
researchers hope to add evidence to the theory that soda and other
sugar-sweetened drinks don't just go hand-in-hand with obesity, but actually
Proving this would be a scientific leap that could help make the case for
higher taxes on soda, restrictions on how and where it is sold - maybe even
a surgeon general's warning on labels. "We've done it with cigarettes,"
said one scientist advocating this, Barry Popkin at the University of North
Carolina in Chapel Hill.
However, those making the case against soda include some of the nation's top
obesity researchers at prestigious institutions like Harvard and Yale.
"There are many different lines of evidence, just like smoking," said Dr
David Ludwig, a Harvard paediatrician who wants a "fat tax" on fast food and
Beverage companies seem worried. Some are making sodas "healthier" by adding
calcium and vitamins, and pushing fortified but sugary sports drinks in
schools that ban soda. This could help them duck any regulations aimed at
"empty calorie" drinks, said Jennifer Follett, a USDA nutritionist at the
University of California in Davis.
"Even defining 'milk' is getting tough these days," with so many flavoured
varieties and sweetened liquid yoghurts, she complained. "It tastes like
you're sucking on ice cream."
Proving that something causes disease is not easy. It took decades with
tobacco, asbestos and other substances now known to cause cancer, and met
strong industry opposition. It would be especially tough for a disease as
complex as obesity.
Diet is hard to study. Most people drink at least some sweetened beverages
and also get calories from other drinks like milk and orange juice, diluting
the strength of any observations about excess weight from soda alone.
Children are growing and gaining weight naturally, "so we have this added
complication" of trying to determine how much extra gain is due to
sweet-drink consumption, said Alison Field, a nutrition expert at
Harvard-affiliated Children's Hospital in Boston.
One: Guilt by association.
Soft drink consumption rose more than 60 per cent among adults and more than
doubled in kids from 1977-97. The prevalence of obesity roughly doubled in
that time. Scientists say these parallel trends are one criterion for
Numerous studies link sugary drink consumption with weight gain or obesity.
One by Ludwig of 548 Massachusetts schoolchildren found that for each
additional sweet drink consumed per day, the odds of obesity increased 60
Another at Harvard of 51,603 nurses compared two periods,
1991-95 and 1995-99, and found that women whose soda drinking increased had
bigger rises in body-mass index than those who drank less or the same.
Two: Physical evidence.
Biologically, the calories from sugar-sweetened beverages are fundamentally
different in the body than those from food.
main sweetener in soda - high-fructose corn syrup - can increase fats in the
blood called triglycerides, which raises the risk of heart problems,
diabetes and other health woes.
This sweetener also doesn't spur production of insulin to make the body
"process" calories, nor does it spur leptin, a substance that tamps down
appetite, as other carbohydrates do, explained Dr George Bray of the
Pennington Biomedical Research Centre in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
"There's a lack of fullness or satiety. The brain just seems to add it on,"
said Dr Louis Aronne, a Weill-Cornell Medical College doctor who is
president of the Obesity Society.
studies by Penn State nutritionist Barbara Rolls illustrate this. One gave
14 men lemonade, diet lemonade, water or no drink and then allowed them to
eat as much as they wanted at lunch. Food intake didn't vary, no matter what
second study gave 44 women water, diet soda, regular soda, orange juice,
milk or no drink before lunch. Total intake was 104 calories greater for
those given caloric beverages than those given diet soda, water or no
beverage. Caloric drinks didn't help women feel any fuller either.
Then there is the "jelly bean study." Purdue University researchers gave 15
men and women 450 calories a day of either soda or jelly beans for a month,
then switched them for the next month and kept track of total consumption.
Candy eaters ate less food to compensate for the extra calories. Soda
drinkers did not.
Three: Bad influence on others.
Sugar-sweetened beverages affect the intake of other foods, such as lowering
milk consumption. Popkin contends they also may be psychological triggers of
poor eating habits and cravings for fast food.
examined dietary patterns of 9,500 American adults in a federal study from
1999-2002. Those who drank healthier beverages - water, low-fat milk,
unsweetened coffee or tea - were more likely to eat vegetables and less
likely to eat fast food.
Conversely, "fast-food consumption was doubled if they were high soda
consumers and vegetable consumption was halved," he said.
Harvard epidemiologist Eric Rimm saw a similar effect in a different
federally funded study of more than 5,000 young adults. With high soda
consumption, "you see this pattern of less healthy intake across the board,"
he said at the obesity meeting.
Four: Consistency of evidence.
Many studies of different types link sugary drinks and weight gain or
obesity. Some even show a "dose-response" relationship - as consumption
rises, so does weight.
Collectively, they meet many criteria for proving cause and effect, Dr
William Dietz, director of nutrition at the federal Centres for Disease
Control and Prevention wrote in an editorial accompanying a study in
February's Journal of Paediatrics.
Source: AP, March 10, 2006 - 10:07AM, Reproduced on